2012, 1(2):4-9. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207001
Abstract:Improving healthcare to rural Chinese communities is vital for promoting health equity in today's China. Chinese Academy of Sciences plays a predominant role in providing advanced technical solutions. The elaborated Integrated Diagnostic Terminals and Cloud Computing Platforms have made significant social impacts as well as they are of benefit for incubating the domestic low-cost healthcare industry.
2012, 1(2):10-12. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207002
Abstract:The development of healthcare services in China is an important premise for the progress of harmonious socialistic society and development of the New Countryside. The problems, related to the cost of healthcare services are nowadays a challenge not only in China but also worldwide. The difference among countries is only who covers the healthcare expenses – the individual himself, the society or the government. It is also proven that adequacy of investments is a complicated matter, and the problem cannot be simply solved by increasing the capital investments. Our group realized that the aforementioned issue is a global problem related to the entire healthcare system in rural areas, and it is not possible to provide operational guidelines and policies in a short period of time. The main practical problem faced now is the deployment of specialized healthcare equipment for rural population. This paper analyses the existing situations and presents some suggestions.
2012, 1(2):13-19. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207003
Abstract:The vital signs of patients in ICU are usually very unstable. This requires immediate assistance from medical personnel. Due to the limited resources, not all the emergencies were handled in time, leading to unexpected fatal outcomes. Most cases like these can be avoided, if they are predicted and the medical assistance is provided before the emergencies occur. Common emergencies include sudden death, septicemia, lung infection, acute hypotension, and organ failure. Current models based on the monitored physiological data can provide sensitive predictions for some emergency types. There are three types of commonly used data, i.e. static data, event data and time series data. The static data is easily obtained, but leads to less accurate predictions than the event data and time series data do. It is expected, that the interest for collecting and processing event data and time series data will grow in the near future.
2012, 1(2):20-25. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207004
Abstract:The combination of portable medical instruments, wireless communication technologies and Internet makes the growth of mobile medical applications possible. Taking into account the specific demands of physiological parameter detecting in mobile environment, the design of mobile medical applications faces a number of requirements, such as achieving low power consumption, low-frequency operation and low noise emissions. The present paper covers four aspects of our research work, i.e. implementation of fully differential analog front-end, power management, human body communication, and on-chip integration of digital signal co-processor. The System-on-Chip design is based on the 3-L principle: Low-frequency, Low-noise and Low-power.
2012, 1(2):26-30. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207005
Abstract:In recent years, there has been increasing interest in low-cost, non-contact and pervasive methods for measuring physiological information, such as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and oxyhemoglobin saturation. The conventional methods, such as wet adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes for HR and HRV, the capnograph device for respiratory status, and pulse oximetry for oxyhemoglobin saturation could provide excellent signals but are expensive and inconvenient. A method to monitor physiological information based on photoplethysmographic imaging offers a new means for health monitoring. Blood volume can be indirectly assessed in terms of blood velocity, blood flow rate and blood pressure, which, in turn, can reflect changes in physiological parameters. Changes in blood volume can be determined from the spectra of light reflected from or transmitted through body tissues. Images of an area of the skin surface are consecutively captured with the color camera of a computer or smartphone and, by processing and analyzing the light signals, physiological information such as HR, respiratory rate, HRV and oxyhemoglobin saturation can be acquired. In this paper, we review the latest developments in using photoplethysmographic imaging for non-contact health monitoring and discuss the challenges and future directions for this field.
2012, 1(2):31-34. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207006
Abstract:Body Sensor Network (BSN) incorporates biomedical engineering technology and wireless sensor network and has characteristics such as miniaturized size, low power consumption, easy and safe operation. It can monitor human physiological information and movement information in real-time and provide versatile vital quantitative information. This paper primarily describes BSN and its application in mobile healthcare, such as human gesture acquisition, fall detection, and recovery training. We also have implemented a body inertial-sensing network for gait analysis of hemiplegic patients.
2012, 1(2):35-39. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207007
Abstract:Medical robotics has become a popular and cutting-edge technology, with increasing importance on the medical service market. Brachytherapy robotics integrates brachytherapy technology and image-guided therapy technology. This paper provides introduction to the brachytherapy technology and image-guided therapy, and then discusses brachytherapy robotic systems. Future perspectives are given at the end.
2012, 1(2):40-45. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207008
Abstract:The open-standards cancer informatics is being developed to address the challenges posed by modern cancer clinical trials. In this paper, a service-oriented software paradigm is presented to derive clinical trial information management systems for collaborative cancer research across multiple institutions. Our proposal is founded on a combination of a clinical trial (Meta) model and WSRF (Web Services Resource Framework)-based SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture), and is evaluated for use in early phase trials. Although primarily targeted at cancer research, our approach is readily applicable to other areas for which a similar information model is available.
2012, 1(2):46-49. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207009
Abstract:Microfluidic devices provide powerful platforms for single-cell transcriptome analysis for many advantages such as highly parallel processing and low consumption of reagents. We have elaborated an integrated system with individual controller for effective single-cell transcriptome analysis. Inside this integrated microfluidic device, the cells are individually manipulated and isolated in an array using micro sieve structures, then transferred into different nanoliter reaction chambers for parallel processing of single-cell transcriptome analysis. The result demonstrates that this platform has the potential for assessment of genetic stability in cancer diagnosis.
2012, 1(2):50-54. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207010
Abstract:A method aimed at the formation of intermediate and high level primitives in angiographies, i.e. vessel segments and branches, is reported. The pairing of vessel contours and centrelines is performed using attributed string matching techniques. After a brief review of string-matching technique, some key elements involved in these algorithms for imaging applications: chain encoding, cost function, normalized edit distance are proposed and analyzed. Their performances are compared on simulated data by means of subjective and objective criteria and further evaluated on coronarographic images.
2012, 1(2):55-60. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207011
Abstract:A prerequisite of thoracic radiotherapy planning is the accurate modeling of respiratory motion of thoracic structures. While the emergence of 4D imaging techniques makes it possible to visualize the anatomic changes during the respiratory process, attaining accurate voxel-to-voxel correspondence between different breathing phases remains to be a challenging task. We mainly study the deformable registration in thoracic radiotherapy, using the fast free-form deformable (FFD) registration strategy with total-variation regularization in consideration of the discontinuous movements of the involved anatomic structures. We describe the registration problem as minimizing an energy function that includes both similarity and smoothness metrics. By using calculus of variations, the minimization problem was represented as a set of nonlinear Euler-Lagrange partial differential equations (PDEs). Finite difference scheme, tri-linear interpolation and Newton iteration were used to solve the PDE, figuring out the displacement field. The performance of the proposed technique was demonstrated by using a 2D thoracic image, a 3D CT volume of lungs and three 3D MRI volumes of fetus. A comparison with the Levenberg-Marquardt least square optimization and 2norm regularization method showed that the registration accuracy was markedly improved, and our technology can handle the registration including organs' discontinuous movements better. Combining the properties of preserving the image edges of TV norm and huge degrees of freedom (DOF) of FFD, our method is fast, accurate and fully automatic. Given the increased interest in 4D thoracic radiation therapy, the deformable registration method described here should find useful application in future clinical practice.
2012, 1(2):61-64. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207012
Abstract:Considering the OCT image noise characteristics and the general structure of the saddle point, this paper proposes a primal-dual algorithm for OCT image noise reduction. After incorporating the log of the speckle noise model, the primal-dual structure is used, which is easy to implement. From our experiments, this algorithm is compared with the mean filter and semisoft shrinkage methods, and it shows that noises in OCT images were removed and important details were preserved simultaneously. The proposed algorithm reduced the speckle noise in OCT images effectively and improved the quality of the images. At the same time, the wide applicability of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated on image segmentation, target recognition and motion estimation.
2012, 1(2):65-68. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207013
Abstract:Electromagnetic Interference induced by 50/60 Hz power line is a major problem in physiological measurements. Conventional methods using embedded software are time-consuming and require a great amount of calculations. In this paper we present a digital filter based on hardware acceleration. The design was based on ASIC that incorporated a reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) unit, a licensed ARM7TDMI IP hardcore and several peripheral IP blocks. Comparing with other methods, this design achieved satisfactory results in the low-frequency range, which is suitable for physiological signals acquisitions. Our method is remarkably faster than conventional methods. The simulation and experimental results confirmed the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
2012, 1(2):70-76. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207015
Abstract:Integration Technology is both a comprehensive technology that utilizes the latest achievements in a number of different fields and a new frontier subject whose development goes together with the development of modern computer, communication, sensor, and equipment technologies. It is a new model of self-directed innovation for scientific research institutes and corporations, also an effective approach, due to the progress of new technologies, when new products are being developed. Therefore, a first priority task of manufacturing industry is to research and develop advanced integration technologies, and to promote the integration of interdisciplinary technologies, sensors and control solutions.
2012, 1(2):77-83. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207016
Abstract:The three networks convergence is a main direction of network development, and wireless networks will mainly serve as a means of access to the wire-line networks. This paper mainly describes in outline the present technological condition of the Internet, telecommunications networks, cable TV networks, and wireless networks, analyses respectively from a view of the trend of the three networks convergence their capability to provide the core technologies that can be used to develop future integrated service networks that can provide all of the services now provided by the three types of networks. It is pointed out that no single network technology will emerge as the undisputed winner, the converged networks will be characterized by a collection of heterogeneous networks which offer a variety of services. Finally, the paper takes a broader perspective, presents the characteristics of the future global multimedia network that will be seen after the three networks convergence, the challenges that will be confronted with by the researchers and the needed innovations to build the network with these characteristics.
2012, 1(2):84-87. DOI: 10.12146/j.issn.2095-3135.201207017
Abstract:Smart city and smart planet are the new stages of global information development. As the core technology for the development of smart city, high performance computing got new challenges and opportunities. The challenges of smart city to high performance computing include: massive data computing, realtime computing, social computing and effective computing. Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, is working on these areas; the latest development and infrastructure built at SIAT are summarized in this paper.